How to write Abstract effectively 


The speed of sound in a fluid is determined by, and therefor an indicator of, the thermodynamic properties of that fluid.

-> The writer provides background factual information

서론에서의 첫 문장을 보통 가져와서 Abstract의 첫 문장으로 사용 한다.

The aim of this study was to investigate the use of an ultrasonic cell to determine crude oil properties, in particular oil density.

-> the writer combines the model, the general aim and the specific aim of the study in one sentence

일반적인 내용에서 디테일한 내용의 전환을 단 한문장으로 설명한다. 

An ultrasonic cell was constructed to measure the speed of sound and tested in a crude oil sample.

The speed of sound was measured at temperatures between 260 and 411K at pressures up to 75MPs.

_. 방법과 그로인한 결과를 요약하여 설명 한다.

- 요약이다. 정보의 중요도에 따라서 일부분을 생략 해야한다. 그것은 실험결과에 작성해야한다. 이곳은 요약이기 때문이다.

The measurements were shown to lead to an accurate determination of the bubble point of the oil.

-> 저자는 연구의 성과를 나타내게 된다.

앱스트랙의 가장 중요한 내용이다.

This indicates that there is a possibility of obtaining fluid density from sound speed measurements and suggests that it is possible to measure sound absorption with an ultrasonic cell to determine oil viscosity.

-> 연구의 implication을 제시한다.

4단계 모델

 Background, Aim, Problem, What the paper does

 Methodology, Materials

 Results, Achievement, Contribution, Implications


 Limitations, Future work

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