1. “Artist’s palette” model
  2. Start with blank canvas and build up from there
  3. Start with plot function (or similar)
  4. Use annotation functions to add/modify (text, lines, points, axis)


Convenient, mirrors how we think of building plots and analyzing data


  1. Can’t go back once plot has started (i.e. to adjust margins);
  2. need to plan in advance
  3. Difficult to “translate” to others once a new plot has been created (no graphical “language”). Plot is just a series of R commands


Plots are created with a single function call (xyplot, bwplot, etc.)


  1. Most useful for conditioning types of plots: Looking at how y changes with x across levels of z
  2. Thinks like margins/spacing set automatically because entire plot is specified at once
  3. Good for putting many many plots on a screen


  1. Sometimes awkward to specify an entire plot in a single function call
  2. Annotation in plot is not intuitive
  3. Use of panel functions and subscripts difficult ot wield and requires intense preparation
  4. Cannot “add” to the plot once it’s created



  1. Split the difference between base and lattice
  2. Automatically deals with spacings, text, titles but also allows you to annotate by “adding”
  3. Superficial similarity to lattice but generally easier/more intuitive to use
  4. Default mode makes many choices for you (but you can customize!)

ggplot2 vs lattice.pdf


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